Welcome to our Visual Portfolio about Space Exploration in the 1900's. This web page was designed as a project for our U.S. History class. On this site you will find a timeline of many important break throughs in the exploration of space, our report entitled "The Moon and Beyond", a gallery full of interesting pictures, links to various other space related web pages, and a work cited page giving credit to all of our sources. We hope you enjoy!! Scroll down to view our table of Notable Space Flights in the 1900's.

Notable Staffed Space Flights

and country
Date Astronauts Flight time
Vostok 1 (U.S.S.R.) April 12, 1961 Yuri A. Gagarin 1/48 First person in space.
MR III (U.S.) May 5, 1961 Alan B. Shepard, Jr. 0/15 Range 486 km (302 mi.), peak 187 km (116.5 mi); capsule recovered. First American in space.
Vostok 2 (U.S.S.R.) Aug. 6–7, 1961 Gherman S. Titov 25/18 First long-duration flight.
MA VI (U.S.) Feb. 20, 1962 John H. Glenn, Jr. 4/55 First American in orbit.
MA IX (U.S.) May 15–16, 1963 L. Gordon Cooper, Jr. 34/20 Longest Mercury flight.
Vostok 6 (U.S.S.R.) June 16–19, 1963 Valentina V. Tereshkova 70/50 First woman in space.
Voskhod 1 (U.S.S.R.) Oct. 12, 1964 Vladimir M. Komarov,
Konstantin P. Feoktistov,
Boris G. Yegorov
24/17 First 3-person orbital flight; also first flight without space suits.
Voskhod 2 (U.S.S.R.) March 18, 1965 Alexei A. Leonov,
Pavel I. Belyayev
26/2 First “space walk” (by Leonov), 10 min.
GT III (U.S.) March 23, 1965 Virgil I. Grissom,
John W. Young
4/53 First American 2-person crew.
GT IV (U.S.) June 3–7, 1965 James A. McDivitt,
Edward H. White, 2d
97/48 First American “space walk” (by White), lasting slightly over 20 min.
GT VIII (U.S.) March 16–17, 1966 Neil A. Armstrong,
David R. Scott
10/42 First docking between manned spacecraft and an unmanned space vehicle (an orbiting Agena rocket).
Apollo 7 (U.S.) Oct. 11–22, 1968 Walter M. Schirra, Jr.,
Donn F. Eisele, R.
Walter Cunningham
260/9 First manned test of Apollo command module; first live TV transmissions from orbit.
Soyuz 3 (U.S.S.R.) Oct. 26–30, 1968 Georgi T. Bergeovoi 94/51 First manned rendezvous and possible docking by Soviet cosmonaut.
Apollo 8 (U.S.) Dec. 21–27, 1968 Frank Borman,
James A. Lovell, Jr.,
William A. Anders
147/00 First spacecraft in circumlunar orbit; TV transmissions from this orbit. The three astronauts were also the first astronauts to view the whole Earth.
Apollo 9 (U.S.) Mar. 3–13, 1969 James A. McDivitt,
David R. Scott,
Russell L. Schweikart
241/1 First manned flight of Lunar Module.
Apollo 10 (U.S.) May 18–26, 1969 Thomas P. Stafford,
Eugene A. Cernan,
John W. Young
192/3 First descent to within nine miles of Moon's surface by manned craft.
Apollo 11 (U.S.) July 16–24, 1969 Neil A. Armstrong,
Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.,
Michael Collins
195/18 First staffed landing and EVA on Moon;
soil and rock samples collected; experiments left on lunar surface.
Soyuz 6 (U.S.S.R.) Oct. 11–16, 1969 Gorgiy Shonin,
Valriy Kabasov
118/42 Three spacecraft and seven men put into Earth orbit simultaneously for first time.
Apollo 12 (U.S.) Nov. 14–24, 1969 Charles Conrad, Jr.,
Richard F. Gordon, Jr.,
Alan Bean
244/36 Staffed lunar landing mission; investigated Surveyor 3 spacecraft; collected lunar samples. EVA time: 15 hr. 30 min.
Apollo 13 (U.S.) April 11–17, 1970 James A. Lovell, Jr.,
Fred W. Haise, Jr.,
John L. Swigert, Jr.
142/54 Third staffed lunar landing attempt; aborted due to pressure loss in liquid oxygen in service module and failure of fuel cells.
Apollo 14 (U.S.) Jan. 31–Feb. 9, 1971 Alan B. Shepard,
Stuart A. Roosa,
Edgar D. Mitchell
216/42 Third staffed lunar landing: returned largest amount of lunar material.
Soyuz 11 (U.S.S.R.) June 6–30, 1971 Georgiy Tomofeyevich Dobrovolskiy,
Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov,
Viktor Ivanovich Patsyev
569/40 Longest stay in space. Linked up with first space station, Salyut 1. Astronauts died just before reentry due to loss of pressurization in
Apollo 15 (U.S.) July 26–Aug. 7, 1971 David R. Scott,
James B. Irwin,
Alfred M. Worden
295/12 Fourth staffed lunar landing; first use of lunar rover propelled by Scott and Irwin; first live pictures of LM lift-off from Moon; exploration time: 18 hours.
Apollo 16 (U.S.) April 16–27, 1972 John W. Young,
Thomas K. Mattingly,
Charles M. Duke, Jr.
265/51 Fifth staffed lunar landing; second use of lunar rover vehicle, propelled by Young and Duke. Total exploration time on the Moon was 20 hr. 14 min, setting new record. Mattingly's in-flight “walk in space” was 1 hr. 23 min. Approximately 213 lb of lunar rock returned.
Apollo 17 (U.S.) Dec. 7–19, 1972 Eugene A. Cernan,
Ronald E. Evans,
Harrison H. Schmitt
301/51 Sixth and last staffed lunar landing; third to carry lunar rover. Cernan and Schmitt, during three EVA's, completed total of 22 hr. 05 min 3 sec. USS Ticonderoga recovered crew and about 250 lbs of lunar samples.
Skylab SL-2 (U.S.) May 25–June 22, 1973 Charles Conrad, Jr.,
Joseph P. Kerwin,
Paul J. Weitz
672/50 First staffed Skylab launch. Established Skylab Orbital Assembly and conducted scientific and medical
Skylab SL-3 (U.S.) July 28–Sept. 25, 1973 Alan L. Bean, Jr.,
Jack R. Lousma,
Owen K. Garriott
1427/9 Second staffed Skylab launch. New crew remained in space for 59 days continuing scientific and medical experiments and Earth observations from orbit.
Skylab SL-4 (U.S.) Nov. 16, 1973–
Feb. 8, 1974
Gerald Carr,
Edward Gibson,
William Pogue
2017/16 Third staffed Skylab launch; obtained medical data on crew for use in extending the duration of staffed space flight; crews “walked in space” 4 times, totaling 44 hr. 40 min. Longest space mission yet: 84 d 1 hr. 16 min. Splashdown in Pacific, Feb. 9, 1974.
Test Project
(U.S. and U.S.S.R.)
July 15–24, 1975
U.S.: Brig. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford,
Vance D. Brand,
Donald K. Slayton
216/05 World's first international staffed rendezvous and docking in space; aimed at developing a space rescue
Test Project
(U.S. and U.S.S.R.)
July 15–21, 1975
U.S.S.R.: Col. A. A. Leonov,
V. N.Kubasov
223/35 Apollo and Soyuz docked and crewmen exchanged visits on July 17, 1975. Mission duration for Soyuz: 142 hr. 31 min. For Apollo: 217 hr., 28 min.
Columbia (U.S.) April 12–14, 1981 Capt. Robert L. Crippen,
John W. Young
54/20 Maiden voyage of Space Shuttle, the first spacecraft designed specifically for re-use up to 100 times.
Salyut 7 (U.S.S.R.) Feb. 8, 1984–
Oct. 2, 1985
Leonid Kizim,
Vladimir Solovyov,
Oleg Atkov
237 days Set a record for Soviet team endurance flight in orbiting space station.
Mir (U.S.S.R.) Feb. 8, 1987–
Dec. 29, 1987
Yuri V. Romanenko1 326.5 days Set a record for Soviet single endurance flight in orbiting space station.
Mir (U.S.S.R.) Dec. 21, 1987–
Dec. 21, 1988
Col. Vladimir Titov,
Musa Manarov
366 days Set current record for Soviet team endurance flight in orbiting space station.
Endeavour (U.S.) May 7–16, 1992 Richard J. Hieb,
Maj. Thomas D. Akers,
Cdr. Pierre J. Thugt
8 days,
23 hr.,
17 min
The three mission specialists remained free of the Endeavour for 8 hours and 20 minutes on May 13 during the repair of communications satellite, setting an absolute record for extravehicular duration in space. First capture of a satellite using hands only.
Endeavour (U.S.) Dec. 2–13, 1993 Col. Richard O. Covey, Cdr. Kenneth D. Bowersox, Lt. Col. Tom Akers,* Dr. Jeffrey A. Hoffman,** Dr. Story Musgrave,** Claude Nicollier, Dr. Kathryn C. Thornton*
(*two space walks;
**three space walks)
10 days,
19 hr.,
59 min
Repaired Hubble Space Telescope. Replaced gyroscopes, solar arrays, camera, electronics, and hardware. Installed COSTAR corrective optics to compensate for flaw in Hubble's primary mirror. Record five space walks in a single mission.
Discovery (U.S.) Feb. 3–11, 1994 Col. Charles F. Bolden, Capt. Kenneth S. Reightier, Jr., Dr. N. Jan Davis, Dr. Frankling R. Chang-Diaz, Dr. Ronald M. Sega, Russian cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev 8 days
7 hr.,
22 sec.
Test flight of Wake Shield Facility, an
experimental, retrievable, free-flying satellite for use in developing exotic materials. Cargo bay carried a private, commercial pressurized-laboratory, Spacehab, for experimental use, leased by NASA. Crew member Sergei K. Krikalev was first Russian cosmonaut to be launched in an American spacecraft.
Columbia (U.S.) July 8–23, 1994 Col. Robert D. Cabana, Lieut. Col. James D. Halsell, Jr., Richard J. Heib, Lieut. Col. Carl E. Walz, Dr. Leroy Chiao, Dr. Donald A. Thomas, Dr. Chiaki Naito-Mukai (the first Japanese woman astronaut) 14 days
17 hr.,
55 min
Studied the effects of limited gravity of orbital flight on materials and living things including goldfish, killifish, jellyfish, sea urchins, and Japanese red-bellied newts.
Mir-17 (Russia) Jan. 8, 1994–
Mar. 22, 1995
Dr. Valery Polyakov 4392 days Record single endurance flight in orbiting space station. Returned to earth with crewmates cosmonaut Helena Kondakova and commander Alexander Viktorenko, who spent 169 days each in the Mir.
Discovery (U.S.) Feb. 3–11, 1995 Cdr. James D. Wetherbee, Lt. Col. Eileen M. Collins, Dr. Janice Voss, Dr. Bernard A. Harris, Jr.,* Dr. C. Michael Foale,* Russian cosmonaut Co. Vladimir G. Titov
*performed spacewalks.
8 days
6 hr.,
29 min
First rendezvous of U.S. spacecraft with a Russian space station (Mir), Feb. 6. Lt. Col. Collins was first female shuttle pilot. Deployed and retrieved solar observatory satellite. Extra-vehicular activity to test new space suit modifications and practice space station assembly techniques. EVA time: 4 hr., 35 min.
Soyuz TM-21 (Russia) March 14–22, 1995 Russian cosmonauts Lieut. Col. Vladimir N. Dezhurov and Gennady M. Strekalov, and U.S. astronaut Dr. Norman E. ThagardDr. Thagard became the first American astronaut to fly aboard a Soyuz spacecraft with a Russian crew launched from Baikonur Space Center in Kazakhstan. He also became the first American to enter the Mir space station on March 16.
Atlantis (U.S.) June 27–July 7, 1995 Lt. Col. Charles J. Prescourt, Capt. Robert L. (Hoot) Gibson, Dr. Eileen S. Baker, Gregory J. Harbaugh, Dr. Bonnie Dunbar, Russian cosmonauts: Mir-19 commander Anatoly Y. Solovyev, Nikolai M. Budarin 10 days Marked 100th human mission in U.S. space program and first shuttle link-up with the Mir: docked June 29, undocked July 4. Joined spacecraft held a record 10 people: 6 Americans and 4 Russians. Three Mir crew (Mir-18 commander,Lieut. Col. Vladimir N. Dezhurov, cosmonaut Grennady M. Strekalov, and U.S. astronaut Dr. Norman E. Thagard) returned to Earth aboard the Atlantis. Dr. Thagard set a U.S. space record of 112 days in space aboard Mir. Cosmonauts Solovyev and Budarin remained aboard the Mir.
Atlantis (U.S.) Nov. 12–20, 1995 Col. Kenneth D. Cameron, Lieut. Col. James D. Halsell, Jr., Col. Jerry L. Ross, Lieut. Col. William S. McArthur, Jr., Canadian Major Chris A. Hadfield, who operated the robot arm 8 days,
4 hr.,
31 min
Second docking with Mir. Carried 15-foot-long Russian-made docking module and attached it to the Mir. Brought 2 new solar-powered panels for Mir and also supplies and scientific equipment. U.S. and Russian astronauts spent 3 days together on Mir conducting experiments.
Endeavour (U.S.) Jan. 11–20, 1996 Col. Brian Duffy, Brent Jett, Dr. Leroy Chiao,** Capt. Winston E. Scott,* Dr. Daniel T. Berry,* and Japanese astronaut Koichi Wakata, who operated robot arm
(*one spacewalk;
**two spacewalks)
8 days,
22 hr.,
01 min
Deployed and retrieved NASA satellite, retrieved Japanese satellite. Two spacewalks performed to test spacesuit components and practice space station construction, tools, and techniques. Total EVA time: 13 hours.
Columbia (U.S.) Feb. 22–March 9, 1996 Lieut. Col. Andrew M. Allen, Lt. Col. Scott J. Horowitz, Dr. Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Dr. Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Italian astronauts Maurizio Cheli and Dr. Umberto Guidoni, Swiss astronaut Nicollier Claude 15 days,
17 hr.,
40 min
Microgravity research flight. Second attempt to deploy Italian-built electricity-conducting satellite failed when metallic debris punctured insulation and broke tether after it was unreeled to almost its full 12.5 mile length.
Atlantis (U.S.) March 22–31, 1996 Col. Kevin P. Chilton, Lieut. Col. Richard A. Searfoss, Dr. Ronald M. Sega, Dr. Linda M. Goodwin, Lieut. Col. Michael R. Clifford, Shannon W. Lucid 9 days,
5 hr.,
15 min
Third linkup with Mir. (March 22–27). Clifford and Goodwin conducted 6-hour spacewalk in shuttle cargo bay while docked with Mir. Lucid remained on board Mir for scheduled 140-day tour to conduct biomedical and material science experiments. Booster problems delayed her return until mid-September. Lucid is first American woman to live on Mir. On July 15, 1996, she broke the previous record for the longest U.S. manned space flight.
Endeavour (U.S.) May 19–29, 1996 Col. John H. Casper, Lieut. Col. Curtis L. Brown, Jr., Cdr. Daniel W. Bursch, Mario Runco, Jr., Dr. Andrew S.W. Thomas, Canadian astronaut Dr. Marc Garneau 10 days,
0 hr.,
40 min
Made record four satellite rendezvous, including three with small PAMS satellite to test the concept of a self-stabilizing satellite in orbit. Deployed and retrieved a Spartan satellite that carried an experimental inflatable antenna.
Columbia (U.S.) June 20–July 7, 1996 Col. Terence T. Henricks, Kevin R. Kregel, Lieut. Col. Susan J. Helms, Richard M. Linnehan, Cdr. Charles E. Brady, Jr., French astronaut Dr. Jean-Jacques Favier, Canadian astronaut Dr. Robert Brent Thirsk16 days,
21 hr.,
48 min
Second-longest mission to date. Studied the effects of weightlessness on people, plants, and animals, and material manufacturing in near-zero gravity.
Atlantis (U.S.) Sept. 16–26, 1996 William F. Readdy, Terrence W. Wilcutt, Thomas D. Akers, John E. Blaha, Jerome Apt, Carl E. Waltz. Download: Shannon W. Lucid10 days, 3hr., 19 min Fourth Mir docking. Carried a Spacelab module. Transferred supplies and equipment to Mir. After breaking all American and women's space endurance records (188 days, 5 hr., 0 min), Lucid returned with Atlantis crew. John E. Blaha remained on Mir for a four-month stay.
Columbia (U.S.) Nov. 19–Dec. 7, 1996Kenneth D. Cockrell, Cdr. Kent V. Romingel, Tamara E. Jernigan, Thomas D. Jones, Dr. F. Story Musgrave17 days, 15 hr., 53 min Deployed and recovered two free-flying satellites during mission: an ultraviolet telescope and Wake Shield (semiconductor processing ) Facility. A jammed airlock hatch canceled two scheduled spacewalks. Is longest mission to date. Dr. Musgrave, 61, became oldest person ever in space and first to fly on all five space shuttles.
Atlantis (U.S.) Jan. 12–22, 1997 Capt. Michael A. Baker, Cdr. Brent W. Jett, Jr., John M. Grunsfeld, Marsha S. Ivins, Peter J.K. Wiscoff, Dr. Jerry L. Linenger. Download: John E. Blaha 10 days, 04 hr., 56 min Fifth Mir docking (Jan.14–19). Carried Spacehab double module. Transferred supplies to Mir. Conducted experiments in Spacehab and Mir. John E. Blaha returned with Atlantis crew after 128 days in space, 118 aboard the Mir. Jerry Linenger remained aboard Mir for 4.5-month stay.
Discovery (U.S.) Feb. 11–21, 1997 Cdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Lt. Col. Scott J. Harowitz, Col. Mark C. Lee,* Steven A. Hawley,
Gregory J. Harbaugh,* Steven L. Smith,* Joseph R. Tanner* (*spacewalks)
9 days, 23 hr., 38 min Second space telescope servicing mission. Installed new imaging spectrograph and infrared camera. Also patched torn telescope insulating cover. Deployed telescope at higher altitude: 335 x 321 nautical mile orbit. Mission required five spacewalks totaling 33 hr., 11 min.
Columbia (U.S.) April 4–8, 1997 Lt. Col. James D. Halsell, Jr., Lt. Cdr. Susan L. Still, Janice E.Voss, Michael L. Gernhardt, Donald A. Thomas, Roger K. Crouch, Gregory T. Linteris 3 days, 23 hr., 13 min Planned 12-day mission to study behavior of metals, materials, and fluids in the absence of gravity and microgravity effects on fires. Was cut short due to a fuel-cell generator problem. Susan Still is second female shuttle pilot.
Atlantis (U.S.) May 15–24,1997 Col. Charles J. Precourt, Lt. Col. Eileen M.
Collins, Edward T. Lu, Maj. Carlos I. Noriega, Jean-Francois Clervoy (France), Elena V. Kondakova (Russia), C. Michael Foale. Download: Dr. Jerry M. Linenger
9 days, 5 hr., 20 min Sixth Mir docking (May 16–21). Carried a Spacehab double module. Transferred supplies and equipment. Jerry M. Linenger returned with Atlantis after 132 days in space. Michael Foale remained on Mir for a 4.5-month stay.
Columbia (U.S.) July 1–17, 1997 Lt. Col. James D. Halsell, Jr., Lt. Cdr. Susan L. Still, Janice E.Voss, Donald A. Thomas, Michael L. Gernhard, Roger K. Crouch, Gregory T. Linteris 15 days, 16 hr., 45 min Successful reflight of the uncompleted Microgravity Science Mission (Columbia, April 4–8, 1997). Is first time the same crew flies together again to complete a previous mission.
Discovery (U.S.) Aug. 7–19, 1997Lt. Col. Curtis L. Brown, Jr., Cdr. Kent V. Rominger, N. Jan Davis, Lt. Cdr. Robert L. Curbeam, Jr., Stephen K. Robinson, Bjarni Tryggvason (Canada) 11 days, 20 hr., 28 minDeployed Shuttle Pallet satellite with scientific instruments to study changes in Earth's atmosphere. Also conducted experiments with shuttle's robot arm for possible applications in Japanese experimental module of space station.
Atlantis (U.S.)Sept. 25–Oct. 6, 1997James T. Wetherbee, Michael J. Boomfield, Col. Vladimir G Titov,* Scott E. Parazynski,* Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien (France), Wendy B. Lawrence. Up: Dr. David Wolf. Down: C. Michael Foale after 145 days in space, 134 days on Mir (*spacewalks)10 days, 19 hr., 22 min7th Mir docking (Sept. 27–Oct. 3). 5 hr. spacewalks (Oct.1) retrieved U.S. experimental packages from Mir for return to Earth. Transferred supplies. Tested emergency jet packs for space station workers. Dr. David Wolf replaced Michael Foale on Mir for 4-month stay.
Columbia (U.S.) Nov. 19–Dec. 5, 1997Kevin R. Kregel, Maj. Steven W. Lindsey, Takao Doi* (Japan), Winston E. Scott,* Kalpana Chawla, Col. Leonid K. Kadenyuk* (Ukraine) (*spacewalks)15 days, 6 hr., 35 minDeployed (Nov. 21) and retrieved (Nov. 24 spacewalk) malfunctioning Spartan solar-observation satellite. A second spacewalk (Dec. 3) tested space station assembly tools and techniques. Total EVA by Doi and Scott: 12 hr., 44 min.
Endeavour (U.S.)Jan. 22–31, 1998 Lt. Col. Terrence W. Wilcutt, Joe F. Edwards, Bonnie J. Dunbar, Maj. Michael P. Anderson, James F. Reilly, II, Salizhan S. Sharipov (Kirghizia), Andrew S.W. Thomas. Down: Dr. David Wolf 8 days, 19 hr., 48 min 8th Mir docking (Jan. 24–29). Thomas replaced David Wolf after 128 days in orbit. Thomas is the seventh and last American to live aboard the Mir.
Columbia (U.S.) April 17–May 3, 1998Lt. Col. Richard A. Searfoss, Lt. Cmdr. Scott D. Altman, Richard M. Linnehan, Dr. Dafydd Rhys Williams (Canada), Kathryn P. Hire, Dr. Jay C. Buckey Jr., James A. Pawelczyk15 days, 21 hr., 15 minNeurolab mission carried over 2,000 mice, rats, crickets, and fish for neurological research. Also studied effects of microgravity on nervous system of crew members.
Discovery (U.S.)June 2–12, 1998Col. Charles J. Precourt, Cmdr. Dominic L. Gorie, Cmdr. Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Kavandi, Valeriy Ruymin (Russia) Down: Andrew S.W. Thomas 9 days, 19 hr., 54 minNinth and final Mir docking mission concluded the joint U.S.–Russian program as a precursor to the International Space Station partnership. Thomas returned to Earth after a 4.5-month stay.
Discovery (U.S.)Oct. 29–Nov. 7, 1998Lt. Col. Curtis L. Brown, Maj. Steven W. Lindsey, Stephen K. Robinson, Dr. Scott E. Parazynski, Pedro Duque (Spain), Dr. Chiaki Mukai (Japan), Senator John H. Glenn, Jr.8 days, 21 hr., 56 minDeployed and retrieved Spartan solar observing satellite. Did research with Hubble Telescope Optical Systems Test Platform (HOST). Studied the effects of aging and microgravity in space.
Endeavour (U.S.)Dec. 4–15 1998Capt. Robert D. Cabana, Capt. Frederick W. Sturckow, Lt. Col. Nancy Currie, Col. Jerry L. Ross, Jim H. Newman, Sergei K. Krikalev (Russia)11 days, 19 hr., 18 minFirst International Space Station assembly mission. Connected Node 1, "Unity," to Functional Cargo Block, "Zarya." Ross and Newman made three spacewalks, total EVA: 21 hr. and 22 min.
Columbia (U.S.)Tentatively May 1999Lt. Col. Eileen M. Collins, Cmdr. Jeffrey S. Ashby, Steven A. Hawley, Maj. Catherine G. Coleman, Col. Michel Tognini (France)5 daysDeploy Chandra X-ray Observatory (formerly AXAF). Eileen Collins will become the first female shuttle commander.

Randall Gordon, Eric Mackie, J.D. Scott, Marrisa Dietz